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MEDIA RELEASE (First Certificate Awards of the Extra-Curriculum Program in the Institute of Ha’a, Lineages, Encouragement, Lokupo, Pahu, Kingdom of Tonga – 23rd of June 2016)
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University Facts why Lo'au University is the first in Moana
- Lo'au University was appointed by the Board of Founders of CUAM Foundation University at Benevento in Italy in January 2014 as one of the 72 partner universities to run its educational and scientific research programs.
- Lo'au University is in partnership with CUAM to run a health global project with a budget of $300 millions under the funding programs known as Horizon 2020 by the European Commission.
- Lo'au University is currently recruiting students, lecturers, researchers and staff from different parts of the world to studyng and working in its online educational programs, activities and operation.
- Lo'au University offers scholarships and financial assistance of approx $10 miilions per year to students from around the world to study for their Proficieny Level One (PLOne)/BA, PLTwo/MA and PLThree/PhD Degrees.
(Taumafa Kava Ceremony in the Coronation of King George Tupou V in 2008 at Pangai Lahi, Pangai Oval, beside the Palace at Kolofo'ou in the capital of Nuku'alofa)
This Ceremony was first masterminded and formed by the Lo'au Lineage, Ha'a Lo'au, under the advice of the first Lo'au, Taputoka, in the 10th century during the reign of the 10th Tu'i Tonga Momo. This is the well-known lasting contribution of the Ha'a Lo'au to the political system of such a Kingly Line, and this is one main reason why they were regarded by the Tu'i Tonga Lines as the 'Carpenter of Land-people', 'Tūfunga Fonua'.
Since then, Ha’a Lo’au have been regarded as the Tūfunga Fonua, Carpenter of Land-People, the social and political engineers, who created certain new moral rules and political agendas for society. Two major reforms that are stood out in their Tūfunga Fonua obligation, fatongia, are as follows.
(HM King George Tupou V on His way from the Palace with Chief Tu'isoso from Nukunuku in Fiji to the Taumafa Kava Coronation at Pangai Oval, Mala'e Pangai in 2008)
One was the formation of kava ceremony; and second was the first re-organization of the local Advisory Body/Body-guards, Falefā, of the Tu’i Tonga, with their fatongia in taking care of the King’s daily activities within His residential compounds like Heketā at Niutōua and Olotele at Lapaha.
This should not be confused with the national and regional advisory fatongia of the Ha’a Lo’au on the broader scope of society, as well as, the administrative fatongia of the Ha'a Tu'i Takalaua and Tu'i Kanokupolu.
While the Ha’a Lo’au advised the Tu’i Tonga on national and regional matters, the Falefā dealt with the daily and residential matters on moral values and behaviours of people towards His Majesty and His local and domestic compound. With the other Kingly Lines of the Ha'a Tu'i Takalaua and Kanokupolu that were established in the 15th and 17th Centuries under the rules of Mo'ungamotu'a and Ngata, and they were the administrators of all local, national and regional affairs of the Tu'i Tonga.
A political system that was also engineered and masterminded to control and colonize its neighbouring islands like Fiji, Samoa, 'Uvea-Futuna, Niue, among others. To be pecific, the Ha'a Lo'au were the advisors of the national and regional matters and sometimes acted as diplomats on behalf of His Majesty; the Falefā were the caretakers in domestic affairs, undertakers and body-guards of the Tu'i Tonga; and the Ha'a Tu'i Takalaua and Tu'i Kanokupolu were the administrators of the local, national and regional matters.
Equally, the first Ha’a Lo’au and Falefā were all foreigners, and the latter were continuing with this tradition up to the 19th Century but not the former by which their existence and functionality in society were ended in the 17th Century.
All these multi-functionalities were mainly based on the belief that the person of the Tu’i Tonga and His compound were too sacred, toputapu, and chiefly, ‘eiki, for the local Tongans to deal with so they do need foreigners to do such a tapu job. In fact, some of the new members of the second Falefā in the re-organization by the Ha'a Lo'au were again foreigners like Tu’i ‘Amanave, Veamatahau and Tu'i Talau/Motuliki.
When the first Tu’i Tonga was established, his first Falefāwere his half-brothers with Samoan mothers, and they were Tu’i Loloko, Matakehe, Māliepo and Tu’i Folaha.
‘Aho’eitu’s elder brother was Talafale and he formed the Ha'a Talafale/Tu’i Fale Ua, Second Fale, who was next to the Tu’i Tonga in authority, mafai, and power, pule. Taputoka’s re-organization brought Tu'i Talau, Veamatahau and Tu’i ‘Amanave both from overseas to replace Tu’i Folaha, Matakehe and Maliepō. Consequently, Maliepō with its matāpule Lauaki then moved later on and joined the Ha'a Tu'i Takalaua and then Ha'a Tu'i Kanokupolu.
Their individual fatongia in taking care of the King and His compound were influential on a daily basis, differently from that of the Ha’a Lo’au on national and regional level and that of the Ha'a Tu'i Takalaua and Kanokupolu. Importantly, their two distinct but related fatongia have never been pointed out and discussed in Moanan-Tongan literature.
However, as we further the discussion of Ha'a Lo'au and kava ceremony, Dr Edward Giffords, Dr Elizabeth Bott, Dr Adrian Kaeppler, Professor Futa Helu, Hūfanga Professor 'Okusitino Māhina, among others, have argued that Taumafa Kava is the seat of power and authority in ancient Tonga society, and it is still obervable nowadays as well. Māhina explains it as the old Parliament of the Kingdom where obligations, fatongia, and power, mafaipule, were allocated and distributed to different ha'a and kainga, extended families.
He also added with Professor Tēvita Ka'ili by employing their Moanan-Tongan General Theory of Tā-Vā, Time-Space that social, moral and political relationships among all ha'a and the King were ensured to be equally and symmetrically allocated and distributed in order for the general political system to function in a more stable and harmonious manner.
(HM King Tupou V drinks His Coronation first kava cup)
In the above Taumafa Kava Coronation of King George Tupou V of the Ha’a Tu’i Kanokupolu, furthermore, its other traditional name is called Taumafa Kava Fakamuifonua/Fakakauhalalalo/Fakakanokupolu, whereas the Taumafa Kava of the ancient King line, Tu’i Tonga, was known as Taumafa Kava Fakalotomu’a/Fakafulitaunga/Fakakauhala'uta.
Also Fakamuifonua and Fakalotomu’a are alluded specifically to the ways in which kava are mixed with dance, faiva haka, of milolua, in both kava circles, without music, hiva, as I have alluded to earlier.
In both Taumafa Kava, kava is mixed in a dance manner, milolua fakamuifonua and milolua fakalotomu’a, by the kava mixer, tou’a, with exceptionally rhythmic patterns, kupesitā-vā, of coordinated beautiful hands haka, head haka and facial movements and smiles while mixing the substance, fonua, with water in the kumete, kava bowl.
Again we have the word fonua in Fakamuifonuaof the Tu’i Kanokupolu. The word muifonua stands for the western peninsula part of Tongatapu which is regarded as the traditional residence of the Tu’i Kanokupolu before moving to their current residence in the capital of Nuku’alofa around the 18th Century.
(HRH Princess Angelika Lātūfuipeka Mata'aho Tuku'aho mixes the kava for the Taumaha Kava)
For the Tu’i Tonga Taumafa Kava, the word Fakalotomu’a refers to the midst of Mu’a, the capital and residence of this old dynasty.
In the Taumafa Kava Fakamuifonua, there are principal issues wich are required to be in the Taumafakava, moreover, addressed with conjunction to fatongia and fonua, which are both considered as two interrelated phenomena, and also both are Moanan-Tongan worldviews to life.
One of the principal conceptions in the Taumafa Kava Fakamuifonua is the meaning of seating of the King, chiefs, hou’eiki and their spokesmen, matāpule with reference to their political power, mafaipule, social rank, langilangi, and blood relationship, fekauaki fakata’ata’a.
Seating arrangement is also related to individual fatongia of every hou’eiki with their individual lineage, ha’a and extended family, kainga.
(HM King Tupou VI drinks His first kava cup in rising to power and marking the Sacred Morning, Pongipongitapu, of the death of elder brother HM Late King George Tupou V in the beginning of 2012)
This Taumafa Kava since Lo’au Taputoka until the end of the Civil War under the victory of King George Taufa’ahau Tupou I in the 19th Century has not allowed Western and modern ways of life intruding into its traditional protocols and ways of doing thing.
It is still purely ancient and traditional in all facets with no Christian, Western and modern influences on this formal level. From the 'Ilo kava of the hou’eiki to all other formal and informal kava, there are already intrusions and new arrangements by some of the Lo’au or major reforms by the previous monarchs since King Taufa'ahau George Tupou I. Even though Tupou I did some major reforms for the Taumafa Kava of the ancient Tu'i Tonga in the 19th Century from Fakalotomu'a to Fakamuifonua but still he decided to preserve its traditional form, fuo, with no Western elements in it.
From the 'Ilo Kava of the hou'eiki to common tu'a faikava in whatever form they may be, they are in one way or another all mixed with Western and Christian elements in a compromising and convincing way.
Dr Siosiua Lafitani and some reserchers of the Lo'au University like anthropologists Kirk Huffman and Professor Tēvita Ka'ili are continuing in pursuing further studies of kava culture and Ha'a Lo'au in Tonga, as well as, in other Moanan islands with its complicated nature as seen in some modern Western countries worldwide.
The following list below shows the fundamental importance of kava in Tongan culture, history and society:
-“Ko e kava΄ ko ha ouau fakalangilangi” – “Kava is an occasion of glorification”
- “Oku Taumafa Kava/Tala Hau/Lo’au ma’u pē ‘a e ouau lalahi ‘a Fale Lahi” – “There is always a Royal Kava/Tala Hau/Lo'au for major occasions of the Royal House”
- “’Oku ‘Ilo Kava/Tala ‘Alofi ma’u pē ‘a e ouau lalahi ‘a hou’eiki” – There is always ‘a Chiefly Kava for major occasions of the chiefly classes”
- ’Oku ‘Kava-‘a-Kainga/Tala Fatongia ma’u pē ‘a e ouau lalahi ‘a e kainga – There is always an Extended Family Kava for major occasions of the kin-members”
- “Ko ha fakalangilangi’ ‘o ka fai ha ‘Ilo Kava΄ ‘i ha ‘āpo” – “It is a privilege to conduct a Chiefly Kava in a funeral wake”
-“’Oku ‘eiki ha kava΄ ‘oka ‘i ai ha fefine/tou’a” – “Kava is chiefly if there is a female/tou’a (server)”
- “’Oku ‘i ai ‘a e kava ‘o e Fatongia tukufakaholo kotoa pē – “Every traditional obligation has its own kava”
- “Ko e kava΄ ko ha ako ‘anga” - “Kava is a place for learning”
- “Nofo ki he kava΄ ka ke poto he anga”/ “Kava attendance can teach you how to behave morally”
- “Nofo ki he kava΄ ka ke poto he talanoa”/ “Kava attendance can teach you how to talk wisely”
- “Ko e kava΄ ‘a e pukepuke ‘anga ‘o e angafakafonua mo e tala tukufakaholo” -“Kava is a forum for preserving culture and oral traditions”
-“Ko e kava΄ mo hono tala΄ ‘a e uho ‘etau taufatungamotu’a” – “Kava and its traditions is the core of our civilization”
-“Ko e kava ‘a e uho ‘o e fonua (kakai mo e kelekele) mo hono tala” – “Kava is the core of the nation (people & land) and its traditions”
-“Ko e kava΄ ko e fakamēlino ‘anga” – “Kava is forum for settling conflict”
-“Ko ‘etau mēlino pē he inu kava” – “We are at peace only when drinking kava”
-“Ko e kava΄ ko ha fakalelei ’anga” – “Kava is a forum for reconciliation”
-“Ko e kava aleapau” – “Kava for agreement/treaty”
-“Ko e kava΄ ko ha vai fakanonga” – “Kava is a comforting water”
- Ko e kava΄ ko ha vai fakafiemālie” – “Kava is a relaxing water”
-“Ko e kava΄ ko ha vai ‘o e mo’ui” – “Kava is a water of life”
-“Ko e kava΄ ko ha faito’o” – “Kava is a medicine”
-“Ko e kava΄ ko ha vai fato’o kete” _ “Kava is a water for healing stomach ache”
-“‘Oku vahe Ha’a, Tauhi Fonua mo Kelekeleke ‘a e Taumafa Kava/Tala Hau/Fonua” – The Royal Kava is for distribution of Chiefly Lineages, Chiefly Representatives and Land”
-“Oku vahe fakafa’ahinga mo fakakolo ‘a e ‘Ilo Kava/Tala ‘Alofi” – The Chiefly Kava is for distribution of extended family and villages”
“’Oku vahe fatongia mo ‘Ulumotu’a ‘a e Tala ‘a Kāinga” – “The Commoners’ Kava is for distribution of obligations and Head of individual extended families”
-“’Oku tala hotau fatongia/deeds΄ ’i he kava” – “Our obligations are told/transmitted through kava”
- “Ka malu hono fakalele mo tauhi e kava ‘i Falesiu΄ ‘e ola lelei ‘a e fāngota” – “Deep Fishing will be successful if kava of Falesiu (Fising-house) is properly conducted and well protected.”
- “Ka maau hono fakalele mo tauhi e kava΄ pea ‘e ola lelei ha fa’ahinga feinga pē.” – “Any deed will be successful if kava is properly conducted and well protected.”
-“Ne hua’i ‘a e kava ‘o e ngaahi ‘otua ‘i he kelekeleke.” - “Kava of the gods were poured on the ground”
-“Ka ‘’ikai ‘i he Taumafa Kava ha hou’eiki pea ‘oku hua’i pē hono kava ‘i he kelekeleke.” – “The kava of an un-attended chief was poured on the ground.”
-“Ko e kava foaki” – “It is a given kava.”
- “Ko e kava΄ ko ha tālanga/alea ‘anga” - “Kava is a forum for dialogue”
- “Ko e tālanga he kava΄ ko ha ‘ako’anga” - “Dialogue in kava is a forum for learning”
-“Tālanga he kava΄ ko e fakatonutonu nofo” – “Dialogue in kava adjusts how we live and do things”
-“Ko e tālanga΄ he kava΄ ‘a e vete’anga ‘o e ta’efemahino’aki” – “Dialogue in kava is the solution for mis-communication”
-“Ko e tālanga he kava΄ ko ha fakahikihiki ‘eiki pē hohoko” - “Dialogue in kava is a practice for elevating chiefly kin-connection or lineages”
Traditional and modern kinds of Kava/Ko e ngaahi fa’ahinga ‘o e Kava tukufakaholo mo fakaonopooni (I also call them the Manifesto of Lo’au):
-“Ko e Kava Faito’o (tofo & tu’u to’o)” – “Kava for healing”
-“Ko e Kava Hela’ia (Fakalokua)” – “Kava for tiredness”
-“Ko e Kava Fakamālo” – “Kava of appreciation”
-“Ko e kava ‘o ha tau” – “Kava for war”
-”Ko e ‘Ilo Kava/Tala ‘Alofi ‘o ha tau” – “Chiefly Kava for war”
-“Ko e Taumafa Kava/Tala Hau ‘o ha tau” – “Royal Kava for war”
-“Ko e kava fakamēlino” – “Kava for peace”
-“Ko e ‘Ilo Kava fakamēlino” – “Chiefly Kava for peace”
-“Ko e Taumafa Kava fakamēlino” – Royal Kava for peace”
-“Ko e kava ‘o ha ngāue mateaki” –“Kava for hard working”
-“’Ilo Kava ‘o e ikuna” – “Chiefly Kava for a victory”
-“Ko e Taumafa Kava ‘o e ikuna” _ “Royal Kava for a victory”
-“Ko e kava fakalelei fonua” – “Kava for reconciliation of land and people”
-“’Ilo Kava fakalelei fonua” – “Chiefly Kava for reconciliation of land and people”
-“Ko e kava kole fakamolemole” _ “Kava for confession”
- “’Ilo Kava kole fakamolemole” – Chiefly Kava for confession”
-“Ko e kava ‘o ha ‘apisia” – “Kava for a commoner’s funeral”
-“Ko e ‘Ilo Kava ‘i ha me’afaka’eiki/’apisia” – “Chiefly Kava for a chief’s/commoner’s funeral”
-“Ko e Taumafa Kava ‘i ha pūlonga ‘i Fale Lahi” – “Royal Kava for a funeral in the Royal Family”
-“Ko e kava toutai” – “Kava for fishing”
-“Ko e kava folau/māvae” – Kava for a journey”
-“Ko e kava ‘eva” – Kava for courting”
-“Ko e kava ‘o ha ‘unoho/ta’ane” – “Kava for a wedding”
-“Ko e kava fai’aho” – “Kava of a birthday”
-“Ko e kava hā’unga/talifolau” – “Kava for welcoming”
- “Ko e kava fo’uvaka” – “Kava for boat building”
-“Ko e kava langa fale” – “Kava for house building”
- “Ko e kava fakanofo matāpule” – “Kava for installing a chief’s spokesman”
- “Ko e kava va'inga” – “Kava for sporting”
-“Ko e ‘Ilo Kava΄ fakanofo Tauhi Fonua (fototehina)” – “Chiefly Kava for installing a King’s/chief’s Caretaker (brother/male cousin)”
-“Ko e Taumafa fakanofo Nopele/Tauhi Fonua” – “Royal Kava for installing a Noble/chief’s Caretaker”
- “Taumafa Kava fakanofo Tu’i” – Royal Kava for Coronation”
-“Ko e kava tali malanga (onopooni)” – “Kava for welcoming a preacher (modern)”
-“Ko e kava ‘o ha fakanofo faifekau (onopooni)” _ “Kava for ordaining a church’s minister (modern)”
-“Ko e kava ‘o ha foaki mata’itohi (onopooni)” [mo e ngaahi kava fo’ou kehekehe]– “Kava for a graduation ceremony (modern)” [and other new kava]